Twenty-five year Environment Plan

The Natural Capital Committee has reported its recommendations for a 25-year Environment Plan.  There are five key sections to this important report:

  1. Vision, ambition and goals
  2. Investment needs
  3. Milestones
  4. Governance
  5. Agricultural subsidies post-Brexit

Twelve goals are offered; these include:

  • Breathable air that achieves international standards;
  • Flood protection by various means including natural flood management to protect everybody against a 0.5% probability of flooding:
  • All inland water to be of good status, and coastal waters all to be good for bathing;
  • Greenhouse gas emissions conforming to international targets, including emissions from land-based activities
  • Access to local greenspace and open recreation for all.  The following goals are suggested:
    • One hectare of local nature reserve per 1,000 people;
    • Two hectares of natural greenspace within 300 m of every home;
    • A 20 ha greenspace within 2 km of every home
    • No suggestion is made that the effect of this has been modelled and compared with the current state of provision.

Turning to investments the report proposes 11 items and these include:

  • 250,000 ha of woodland by 2040;
  • All peat to be in favourable condition;
  • Restoration of hydrological cycles including channel restoration and natural flood management measures;
  • New National Parks (no suggestions as to where);
  • Farm funding to be limited to public goods and high welfare standards;
  • Working closely with Local Nature Partnerships;
  • Developer contributions via planning etc to be pooled for natural capital investment;
  • An enhanced capacity for citizen action and involvement;
  • Natural Capital Net Gain principle which would apply to planning, environmental regulation and public procurement wherever possible;
  • Despite being referred to as investments, none of these are funded or compared with the status quo.

Five year milestones are proposed, which need to be supported by a natural capital risk register; accounting measures; cost benefit appraisal approaches and natural capital balance sheets.  Pp 8 and 9 of the report make particular mention of the private sector in this respect but do not expand on this point.

It is proposed that there should be a State of the Environment Report by 2019 and that this should be updated regularly.  For governance the committee propose that the 25 year Environment Plan should be placed on a statutory footing under the authority of a single organisation, with a separate independent body on the lines of the National Audit Office to report regularly on progress.

The final section is concerned with agricultural policy and is perhaps the vaguest part of the report.  Much is made of the examples of market orientated projects like South West Water’s involvement in Upstream Thinking.  Although the report claims that several water companies are involved in such schemes, this is the only example to be cited.  There are indeed other examples and it is a shame that the report does not address more fully the challenges in developing new thinking in this area compared with its more defined focus in earlier sections.

Perhaps on the other hand however, this should be welcomed by those of us who have spent a lifetime involved in day to day management of rural estates and farms as an opportunity still to bring practical common sense and hard-earned local knowledge to further deliberations on these matters.

This provides the perfect opportunity to finish on an event being organised by the Ecosystem Knowledge Network with the Tatton Estate and the Country Land and Business Association on Natural Capital for Rural Estate Professionals at the end of October.  The latest report from the Natural Capital Committee is an important step forward in defining our rural future – do come and join us to see how this might begin to look on the ground.

 

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Natural Capital for rural estate professionals: Cheshire, 31 October 2017

This half day workshop is aimed at rural estate owners, managers and their professional advisers. Our purpose is to look at practical ways in which we can work with current policy and technical thinking about natural capital and ecosystem services. We will hear about some tools that are available to help and will look at a practical case study based on a real private commercial rural estate.

You should end the day with an enhanced understanding of the latest developments in this area and some insights that you can start to apply to your own estates and land. You will also have the opportunity to provide feedback on what you have heard and what you think is needed.

This opportunity is the first of its kind to address these issues from the perspective of a private sector landowner and manager. It is important as we see high level advice to government and future public policy beginning to develop around the natural capital concept.

Programme to include:
• Overview of current issues in rural estate management
• An introduction to tools for scoping, mapping and valuing the benefits of natural capital
• Presentations from tool developers Viridian Logic • The Land App • NaturEtrade
• Small group discussion around a practical example (based on the Tatton Estate with the support of Tatton Estate Management – the largest privately-held estate in East Cheshire)

Organised in collaboration with the CLA, Oxford University, Natural Environment Research Council, Charles Cowap and the Ecosystems Knowledge Network.

Members of the RICS, CLA, CAAV, academics and employees of not for profit organisations can benefit from a discounted admission price.

http://ecosystemsknowledge.net/events/tatton

Registration from 10.45 for an 11.15 start; event closes at 16.30 hrs. RICS Structured CPD hours = up to 5 hrs 15 mins plus further reading etc as appropriate.

Event flyer here

Farming tax breaks: true or false

Saturday’s BC Radio 4 Today programme broadcast an interview with Prof Dieter Helm, the economist who chairs the government’s Natural Capital Committee.  Prof Helm made some cogent points about the ad hoc development of various policies for the agricultural industry, calling farmers subsidy junkies along the way and highlighting ‘exemptions’ from tax.  He particularly mentioned Diesel, Rates and Inheritance Tax.  But is Prof Helm right?  Are farmers treated any differently than the rest of us?

Diesel.  Farmers use so-called Red Diesel in their tractors and other land machinery.  It is red because it has been stained to distinguish it from diesel on which petroleum duties are levied (often called DERV – Diesel Oil for Road Vehicles, Diesel Engined Road Vehicles).  Red diesel is also called Gas Oil.  Farmers must use DERV in vehicles which must travel on public roads a lot for example pick-up trucks, or tractors used extensively on the public road.  Other industries that use diesel engines off the public road also use red diesel, notably the construction industry, quarrying and rail transport.  Boats with diesel engines also use red diesel, whether for commercial or leisure operations.  Customs Officers are regularly to be found at agricultural markets and country shows ‘dipping’ vehicle tanks for the tell-tale red stain.  So no difference here from other industries: we all pay more fuel tax on vehicles which go on the public road but don’t have to pay it on off-road vehicles.  VAT is also payable on fuel and in this respect the farming industry is also no different from other industries.  As an aside, landowners who do not farm are generally unable to reclaim VAT.

Rates:  Farming has been exempt from the general property rate since the 1930’s.  The history of agricultural rating goes back further to the 19th century when farm land was generally subject to a reduced rate.  It is however little known that about 11% of the land area of England and Wales is subject to a rate on farmland, in the form of the rates levied in the Internal Drainage Districts.  These are used to pay for the upkeep of local drainage systems which benefit farmland and other properties in the areas concerned.  Like the rest of us, farmers pay Council Tax on their houses.

Inheritance Tax: Farmers may benefit from Agricultural Property Relief on the value of most of the farm when they die.  For an owner-occupier who satisfies the rules the rate of relief is 100% of the agricultural value of the property, which in practice can be less than its full market value.  So a special concession for farming?  Well no not really.  Other businesses (and indeed farming businesses on their other assets) also qualify for Business Property Relief.  This relief is also set at 100% for most cases and is given against the market value of all the assets used in the business.  The idea behind both reliefs is to keep capital in the business.  For sure, agricultural landowners can also claim a variety of agricultural property relief but the radio remarks were about farmers not landowners.

Business Property Relief has some further surprises.  For example many of the shares quoted on the Alternative Investment Market (AIM) also qualify for 100% Business Property Relief.  Furthermore the income from those same shares is taxed at lower rates of Income Tax than earned income including trade profits: the first £5,000 of dividends are free of any Income Tax, basic rate income tax is levied at 7.5% instead of 20%; higher rate at 32.5% instead of 40% and additional at 38.1% compared with 45%.  Grateful thanks indeed for investors who are willing to invest some capital in AIM stocks and wait for the income and gains to roll in (while of course accepting the risks of losses).

To highlight the comparison, consider £5 million invested in a farm, another business or AIM stocks and shares.  In each case the combination of reliefs could reduce the taxable value of this investment for Inheritance Tax purposes to zero.  Along the way the owner of the shares will pay less Income Tax per pound than either the businessman or the farmer, whose tax bill will be broadly similar at similar levels of profit.  The farmer’s return on his £5 million is however, likely to be considerably lower than either the share owner or the businessman, with or without subsidies.

The interview on Radio Four can be heard at this link for the next 29 days.  It starts at 1 hr 10:03 mins and finishes at 1:20:50.   It’s fairly characteristic of the uninformed and poor insight shown into questions of rural, farming and food policy shown by so much of our public media.  John Humphrys and Radio 4 really should be able to do better, even in just 10 minutes.

–ooOoo–

A few copies of Concise Rural Taxation 2016/17 are still available for any reader whose appetite has been whetted for rural taxation.  See the separate tab for order details, or wait until the autumn for the next edition.

Smallholdings: State of the Nation

The county smallholdings estate is generating an operating surplus of £16.1 million from more than 2,500 farms covering an area of 86,700 hectares let as smallholdings.  In the words of the report from which these data are taken:

Whilst the data set is incomplete this report indicates that council farms continue to play an important role in the tenanted agricultural sector across England covering approximately 86,700 hectares of agricultural land providing approximately 2,583 holdings for around 2,081 tenant farmers. About sixty percent of the lettings are equipped farms (1,536 equipped holdings) and 49 lettings were made to new entrants during 2015/16. The report shows that the reporting smallholding authorities generated a revenue account net surplus of just over £9.5 million in 2015/16.

What more can be gleaned from the 66th Annual Smallholdings Report from Defra? Continue reading “Smallholdings: State of the Nation”

Rural Proofing: a key reference for rural activists and analysts

Rural analysts and activists take note.  Defra has updated its rural proofing guidance this week.  This will be a key reference for anybody interested in the development and impact of policies which affect rural areas.  Why?

Because policy measures are meant to have been ‘rural proofed’.  So the criteria for rural proofing are important because they provide a framework for the independent evaluation of rural impact.  They are also therefore a sound basis on which to challenge measures which may adversely affect rural economic, social and environmental interests, or to promote measures which will support these interests.

The Defra guidance tells us:

Thriving rural communities are vital to the English economy. A fifth of us live in rural areas and they are home to a quarter of England’s businesses, and generate 16.5% of the English economy. Rural areas face particular challenges around distance, sparsity and demography and it is important that government policies consider these properly.
Rural proofing is about understanding the impacts of policies in rural areas. It ensures that these areas receive fair and equitable policy outcomes. This guidance sets out a four- stage process to achieve this objective.

Figure One of the Defra Guidance offers this four stage process for rural-proofing:

Rural Proofing Process

The Guidance goes on to suggest this way to assess rural impact:

Rural Impact How to Assess

Worth a look for anybody concerned with rural policy and development nationally, regionally or locally.

New Brexit Blog

I have set up a new blog site solely dedicated to Brexit, Farming and the Rural Economy.

You can see it here, and in particular a page of links to useful information which I hope to keep updated with relevant publications and other sources of Brexit information as they appear.

I hope you will find it a useful resource.  Please send in any suggestions for material you think is needed, or other suggestions for its development.

Budget 2017: Rural Round Up

No discernible direct rural points in today’s Budget, but nevertheless there is plenty to think about with the rural implications of the general measures.  In no particular order:

  • The rating announcements are welcome.  A small life belt for the remaining rural pubs with the news that any pub with a rateable value of less than £100,000 will benefit from a £1,000 discount.  Meanwhile businesses which have lost rate relief as a result of the revaluation will see their new rates bill capped at no more than £50 per month.  This is still a notable extra £600 per year which is still likely to be felt in the smallest of businesses to lose relief.  There is also to be a hardship fund of £300 million.
  • The rural self-employed will want to look at the changes to National Insurance contributions which arrive in April 2018.  Class 2 contributions – the weekly ‘stamp’ as it was once known – will be abolished; but Class 4 contributions (based on profits) will go up from 9% to 10%, with a further rise to 11% in April 2019.  Except at the smallest level this will lead to a rise in NICs for most self-employed men and women.
  • Rural skills may benefit from the introduction of T Levels, which will be a new form of technical qualification sitting alongside A Levels (and apprenticeships and .. and ..)
  • The introduction of Digital Tax continues but a small olive branch is the delay in its application to smaller businesses.  At least this gives  a breathing space for smaller rural businesses but will broadband arrive at the far end of the valley in time for online digital tax recording in April 2019?  Perhaps the commitment to spend £16 million on 5G may help, along with the £200 million committed to local broadband.
  • Meanwhile April 2018 becomes the deadline for digital tax for businesses which have profits chargeable to Income Tax, pay Class 4 NI contributions and have a turnover above the VAT threshold – so that’s most farms.
  • April 2019 is the deadline for Income Tax/NI payers who are below the VAT threshold.  It’s also the deadline for any body registered for and paying VAT.
  • April 2020 is the deadline for payers of Corporation Tax (unless presumably already caught by the April 2019 deadline for other VAT payers).
  • Businesses, self-employed and landlords are exempt if turnover is less than £10,000.  Employees with secondary income of more than £10,000 a year from self-employment or property are also caught by the new digital provisions.
  • Digital Tax will therefore be wide ranging and pervasive in its impact, especially for businesses which have maintained traditional records of their income and expenditure.  Preparations will have to be made.
  • Various plans to invest in electric vehicles, robotics and artificial intelligence (£500 million) should feed through to benefits for the agricultural industry, and £300 million to support 1,000 new PhD students in science, technology and engineering subjects may also have agricultural and rural benefits.
  • We are promised various consultations in the year ahead.  The key ones to look out for seem to be:
    • Rent a Room Relief – probably aimed at excluding the AirBnB’ers but could have unintended consequences for those who provide board and lodging for workers for example.
    • Employer provided accommodation – HMRC has undertaken research on this topic recently.
    • Landfill Tax – extending the scope to illegal disposals (not before time but the challenge will be to apprehend the miscreants).
    • Digital Tax Administration (yes, more)
  • We are also promised future calls for evidence in the following areas:
    • Employee business expenses
    • Taxation of benefits in kind
    • Red Diesel – this seems to be aimed more at the use of red diesel in various urban situations, but again beware unintended consequences of anything which might subsequently emerge
  • Insurance Premium  Tax is to rise by another 2% from June 2017.  As any renewal quotation shows this tax is now a significant additional cost.
  • The scope of ‘cash accounting’ for smaller businesses is to be increased, to an ‘entry threshold’ turnover of up to £150,000.  Once in it will be possible to stick with cash accounting up to £300,000.  This could be a useful simplification for some rural businesses, and the government has promised to provide a simple list of disallowed expenditure under the cash basis in this year’s Finance Bill.
  • Unincorporated property businesses will generally be allowed to calculate their taxable profits on a cash basis as well.
  • Meanwhile the tax free allowance for the first £5,000 of dividend income is to be reduced to £2,000.  This allowance is only a year old.  The figures probably equate to tax free dividend income from a shareholding of about £100,000 and £40,000 respectively (that’s assuming a portfolio which is paying 5% net in dividends – many will be much lower).
  • The domicile rules for Inheritance Tax change from this year.  ‘Non doms’ will nevertheless be deemed to be domiciled in the UK for tax purposes where they have been a UK resident for 15 of the past 20 tax years.  Worth looking at for the more international among us.
  • The sweet toothed will pay more for their sugary drinks from April 2018.  A lower rate of 18 ppl will apply to sugary drinks of 5 to 8 g of sugar per 100 ml, and 24ppl above this.  Less demand for sugar?  One for the sugar beet growers?
  • The Aggregates Levy remains frozen at £2/tonne, a rate set in 2009.
  • Technical changes are laid for disposals of land which are subject to Income Tax or Corporation Tax, and the payment deadline for Stamp Duty Land Tax will reduce to 14 days from 30 days in April 2018 (this change was to have been introduced before then).

What have I missed?